Open Access Statement

Open Access

This is an Open Access journal which means that all content is freely available immediately upon publication without charge to the reader or their institution.

We operate under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Readers can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles and reviews, or use them for any other lawful non-commercial purpose. Do not share the article/review if you have made changes to its content. Prior permission from the publisher or the author is not required but you must credit the author and link to the original site of publication, 49th Parallel

Authors are free to upload post-acceptance and post-publication articles/reviews to their university Open Access depository or a secondary platform. Please provide bibliographic citation and include a link to 49th Parallel.